Renewable energy is all the energy obtained from natural sources such as water, sun, wind and animal or plant biomass.
Renewable energy comes from natural resources, for that reason it does not pollute the environment and it does not run out; because some resources such as the sun are abundant or because they are resources that can be found anywhere in the world.
Renewable energy has been a topic of great importance worldwide, because more environmentally friendly solutions are being sought.
The most important advance on this issue was the World Climate Summit held in the year 2,015 in the French city of Paris, where the Paris Agreement was signed, in this agreement the international community decided to support renewable energy projects.
This agreement will take effect in the year 2,020 and the 200 countries that signed it have committed to reducing polluting emissions. Seeking to reach a global goal that the increase in temperature on the planet at the end of this century is between 2 to 1.5 degrees.
Characteristics of renewable energy
The three most important characteristics of renewable energy are:
1. Does not pollute
Clean energy is any energy production or extraction process that does not generate waste that pollutes the environment, that is, the possibility of having a polluting effect is eliminated, because any waste that is dangerous for the environment is eliminated.
2. It does not run out
It is an inexhaustible energy, because it comes from resources that are natural and totally renewable, the amount available can be maintained over time, even if it is used in large proportions.
3. It is competitive
It is a competitive energy, since once the initial investment has been made for it to function efficiently; the costs are relatively low. In addition, it is a type of energy that can have many and diverse applications; But the most important thing is that it contributes to sustainable economic development.
Types of renewable energy
Renewable energy is characterized by being very diverse, but among the most used we find
1. Solar energy
Solar energy is that which is obtained from light or heat from the sun. The ways of using solar energy can be very diverse
- Solar Photovoltaic: it directly transforms the sun’s radiation and turns it into electricity, through photovoltaic panels.
- Solar Thermoelectric: it is also known as solar thermal, in this case solar energy is used to produce heat and with it it is possible to heat water and cook food. The sun’s energy is concentrated through the use of mirrors or lenses.
2. Wind energy
It is the energy that is produced by taking advantage of the force of the wind, the wind moves the rotors or mills that are connected to electricity generators.
Wind energy is used to move large energy parks, but the mini-wind application can also be used that moves generators of power less than 100 KW, which allows adapting to the consumption needs of each specific place, which does not need to use large quantities or that are isolated areas.
3. Hydraulic power
It is the energy obtained with the use of river or fresh water currents, it is also called hydroelectric energy. It is usually generated in dams and by the kinetic energy produced by the force of the water that moves the turbines that produce electricity. It has been one of the oldest ways that have been used to produce electrical energy.
4. Biomass and biogas
This form of energy is obtained through the use of organic matter. It is produced by combustion of organic waste of animal or vegetable origin, it is an ecological and economical way of producing the movement of internal combustion engines. As an energy source it also produces electricity, hot water and heating.
5. Geothermal energy
It is the energy deposited in the form of heat inside the earth, it can be used to produce heat and electrical energy. It is available 24 hours a day in deposits located in the interior of the earth’s surface, usually in volcanoes.
6. Energy from the sea
The energy of the sea or marine is the one obtained from the force of the tides or waves, and with this it is possible to obtain electrical energy. Energy from the sea can be thermal, photovoltaic and thermoelectric.
Advantages of renewable energy
There are innumerable advantages that can be obtained with the use of non-renewable energies, but we can summarize them in the following:
- They do not emit greenhouse gases: it is one of the cleanest solutions to produce energy. The fact of not polluting the environment makes them one of the best options to conserve and preserve the environment.
- They reduce energy dependence : the sun, water and wind can be found anywhere in the world, unlike fossil fuels that are only found in certain places on the planet, so countries that do not have them have to import them from other nations.
- They are not finished: as they come from natural resources, you can use whatever you want and they are still renewable. For that reason they are considered as a sustainable option for the use of energy in the future for all humanity.
It becomes more and more competitive
Interest in this type of energy has led to more and more investment in them, which allows costs to be reduced and in this way they become more accessible for different countries.
We can conclude by saying that renewable energy is valued as one of the best solutions to produce energy. They are cleaner, highly competitive, and available unlimitedly in all parts of the world.
In addition, their application form is very diverse, they are abundant and have high potential. However, the most important thing is that they do not pollute our planet and this allows us a sustainable economic development.