The evolution of management as a formal discipline was strongly driven by changes in industrial relations and by advances in areas such as psychology, engineering, and technology.
Fundamentally these changes occurred with the industrial revolution that took place at the end of the 18th century in England. This led to mass production and the replacement of artisan workshops by factories.
Similarly, all of this drove the need for job specialization and task coordination so that the organization will work efficiently. Making profound changes in the tasks of the administration. This led to the emergence of new theories in order to achieve improvements in the methods, times and resources used.
It was precisely at the end of the 19th century that some of the first scientific publications on administration issues appeared. But in the twentieth century, the accelerated development that occurred in society made it necessary to review and improve the processes and techniques of the administration.
Obviously, the administration has become a requirement for the proper functioning of organizations, since if they want to achieve their objectives they must plan and coordinate all their tasks.
Main administrative theories
Undoubtedly, the new theories of administration help to be able to follow an order that allows controlling and coordinating all the tasks and the different roles that the people who are part of an organization play. In this way it is easier to adapt to changes, anticipate problems and achieve the proposed objectives.
The main administrative theories are:
1. Scientific theory
Indeed, scientific theory emerged in the United States in 1903. Its main representative is Frederick Taylor, this theory seeks to improve the efficiency and productivity of workers through the scientific study of work methods.
2. Bureaucratic theory
On the other hand, the bureaucratic theory was proposed by Max Weber in Germany in 1905. This theory proposes a centralized method in a hierarchy, in which responsibilities are divided and the division of labor occurs. It operates under a bureaucratic order and the rules must be obeyed by all members of the organization.
3. Classical theory
On the other hand, classical theory considers that all administrative principles can be used to coordinate and control all the activities of the organization. For this reason, it is a systemic approach, where good performance is achieved under hierarchical direction and delegating responsibilities in administrative functions. It was proposed by Henry Fayol in France in 1916.
4. Humanist theory
Then, the humanist theory began in the United States in 1932, its main precursor is Elton Mayo. This theory is based on the fact that good relationships between people help to achieve greater efficiency in the production process.
5. Theory of behavior
Certainly, the theory of behavior has as its maximum representative Abraham Maslow, and this theory is based on Maslow’s pyramid, where he explains that needs are the elements that motivate man’s behavior. It appears in the year 1950, in the United States.
6. Contingency theory
Now, the theory of contingency was born in the United States in 1980, its top representatives are William Dill, William Starbuck, James Thompson, Paul Lawrence, Jay Lorsch and Tom Burns.
It states that there is nothing absolute in the management process, so it all depends on the contingency approach. Therefore, the administration is considered an open system. In other words, the functioning of the organization will depend on the interaction with its environment.
In conclusion, we can say that management helps organizations maximize all human and material resources, if they are properly coordinated to achieve the objectives. This allows them to be better prepared to deal with changes and anticipate problems that may arise. The 20th century is the time where it has been most developed to the point of being able to find different approaches to the administrative theories that can be applied.