Consul

A consul is the person in charge of exercising non-political functions abroad, occupying an official position. It carries out its activities at the consulate.

Consul

The consul is appointed by the State of origin, he is a public official. Its objective is to facilitate and serve those people with the nationality of origin who reside or are in the country where the consulate is installed.

Consul functions

The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, which is the one that regulates this matter at the international level, in its article 5 indicates the consular functions:

  • Protect in the receiving State the interests of the sending State and its nationals, whether natural or legal persons, within the limits permitted by international law.
  • Encourage the development of commercial, economic, cultural and scientific relations between the sending State and the receiving State, and also promote friendly relations between them, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
  • To be informed by all lawful means of the conditions and evolution of the commercial, economic, cultural and scientific life of the receiving State, to inform the government of the sending State about it and to provide data to interested persons.
  • Issue passports and travel documents to nationals of the sending State, and visas or appropriate documents to people who wish to travel to said State.
  • Provide help and assistance to nationals of the sending State, whether they are natural or legal persons.
  • Act as a notary, as a civil registry official, and in similar functions and exercise others of an administrative nature, provided that the laws and regulations of the receiving State are not opposed.
  • Ensure, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the receiving State, the interests of the nationals of the sending State, whether natural or legal persons, in cases of succession due to death that occur in the territory of the receiving State.
  • Safeguard, within the limits imposed by the laws and regulations of the receiving State, the interests of minors and other persons who lack full capacity and who are nationals of the sending State, in particular when it is required to institute a guardianship for them. or a conservatorship.
  • Represent the nationals of the sending State or take the appropriate measures for their representation before the courts and other authorities of the receiving State, in accordance with the practice and procedures in force in the latter, in order to achieve that, in accordance with the laws and regulations thereof, provisional measures are adopted to preserve the rights and interests of these nationals, when, due to their absence or for any other reason, they cannot defend them in a timely manner.
  • Communicate judicial and extrajudicial decisions and fill out letters rogatory in accordance with the international agreements in force and, in the absence thereof, in a way that is compatible with the laws and regulations of the receiving State.
  • Exercise, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the sending State, the rights of control or inspection of the vessels that have the nationality of said State, and of the aircraft registered therein and, also, of their crews.
  • Provide assistance to the ships and aircraft referred to in the previous section and, also, to their crews; receive a declaration on the voyage of these vessels, send and endorse the documents on board and, without prejudice to the powers of the authorities of the receiving State, carry out surveys on the incidents that occurred during the voyage and resolve any disputes of all kinds that may arise. between the captain, the officers, the sailors, as long as the laws and regulations of the sending State so authorize.
  • Exercise the other functions entrusted by the sending State to the consular post that are not prohibited by the laws and regulations of the receiving State or to which it does not oppose, or those that are attributed to it by the international agreements in force between the State that sends and receiver.

Roman Consul

The consul was the highest position of power during the Roman republic, which lasted from 509 BC. C. until 27 a. C. Every year two consuls were elected and they had to fulfill their mandate during that year. Political and military functions were attributed to him, taking charge of the direction of the Empire.

They were chosen two by two in order to counteract and limit the power of the other, so that neither of the two figures held unlimited power. If either of them died during their mandate, sometimes a substitute consul was chosen and other times it was the other consul who held all power until the end of their mandate.

Later, with the establishment of the Roman Empire, a period immediately after the republic, the emperors came to power. The direction of the empire was left in their hands, relegating the consuls to more discreet functions.